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Ecological Framework of Canada
Ecoregions of Canada


This ecoregion covers a narrow coastal strip along the Bay of Fundy in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Strongly influenced by the Atlantic Ocean, the region is exposed to high winds, high humidity, and fog during summer and fall and is slow to warm up in spring. It is marked by cool, wet summers and mild, wet winters with most precipitation falling as rain. The mean annual temperature is approximately 6°C. The mean summer temperature is 14.5°C and the mean winter temperature is -3°C. The mean annual precipitation ranges 1100-1400 mm. High tides, averaging 10 m occur in the Minas Basin in the Bay of Fundy. The highest tide in the world was registered here at 16.1 m. The coniferous forest is predominantly composed of red spruce, balsam fir, and red maple with scattered white spruce, and white and yellow birch. Sugar maple and beech are found at higher elevations. The bedrock is composed of Proterozoic, Palaeozoic, and Mesozoic strata rising from sea level to about 215 m asl inland. The terrain is highly variable, ranging from the rolling to steep, deeply incised highlands to undulating plains. Discontinuous, stony glacial till blankets the highlands, whereas loamy tills, sandy fluvioglacial sediments, and silty marine deposits occupy lowlands. Humo-Ferric Podzols are the dominant soil. Mesisols on flat bogs occur in lowland areas. Regosols and Gleysols on diked and drained salt marshes are used for agriculture. The region provides habitat for moose, black bear, white-tailed deer, red fox, snowshoe hare, porcupine, fisher, coyote, beaver, ruffed grouse, bobcat, and raccoon. Salt marshes and tidal flats provide important habitat for migratory shorebirds. Approximately 10% of the ecoregion is farmland. Forestry, the fishery, tourism, and seashore recreation are other land uses. The major communities include Amherst and Truro. The population of the ecoregion is approximately 82 500.

This ecoregion is part of the Atlantic Maritime ecozone.